Chapter 17: Rights to Life, Liberty, and Property


Court Cases:

Slaughterhouse Cases (1873) – Supreme Ct. differentiated between privileges of US citizens and those of state citizens. Include rights to use navigable waters of the US and to protection on the high seas, to assemble peacefully and petition for redress of grievances, to vote if qualified under state law, to have one’s vote properly counted, and to travel throughout the US. (Book Ref. Page 385)


Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) – recognizes personal privacy as a constitutional right. (Book Ref. Page 390)


Roe v. Wade (1973) – abortion is legal. For specific details, see: (Book Ref. Page 390)


Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)- reaffirmed Roe v. Wade by a 5-4 majority. (Book Ref. Page 390)


Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) – 5-4 vote in which Supreme Ct. refused to declare unconstitutional a GA law that made consensual sodomy a crime. (Book Ref. Page 390 again.)


Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000) – Accommodations law in NJ could not be applied to keep the Boy Scouts from excluding gays from being scout leaders. (Book Ref. Page 391)


Romer v. Evans (1996) – struck down initiative amending the CO constitution that prohibited all legislative, executive, or judicial action designed to protect gays at any level of state or local gov’t. (Book Ref. Page 391)


Terry v. Ohio (1968) – upheld “stop and frisk” exceptions to searches of individuals when officers believe them to be armed and dangerous or to have committed or are about to commit a criminal offence. (Quick pat down check unless something suspicious is found.) (Book Ref. Page 392)


Mapp v. Ohio (1961) – Supreme Ct. adopted a rule excluding from a criminal trial evidence that was illegally obtained. (A.K.A. the exclusionary rule) (Book Ref. Page 393)


Miranda v. AZ (1966) – established the Miranda Rights (A.K.A. right to attorney, to remain silent, etc.) (Book Ref. Page 394)


Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) – The right to legal councel despite income or education. (Book Ref. ??)


Gitlow v. New York (1925) – freedom of speech and press are among rights granted in the 14th amendment from impairment by the states. Basically, states’ rights could not deny any individual freedom of speech or press on a state level anymore because it was protected under the first and fourteenth amendments. (Book Ref. Page 365)


Gregg v. Georgia (1976) – death penalty is constitutional. (Book Ref. ??)


Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) - Any statements made by a defendant who was not informed of his rights is inadmissible in court.